Tag Archives: 1.MD.4

Describing Using a Bubble Map: Observation of Wildflower Fruits and Seeds

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Who Would Love This Task:

  • Do you struggle getting your children to notice the difference between the words  “patch” and “pitch?”
  • Do your kids refer to objects as “thingy” or “cosita” instead of using precise words to describe them?
  • Does the typical writing of your students lack elaboration, or use general versus specific details?
  • Do you wish your students would stop and notice things when they are outside playing?

If any of these apply to you and your students, then you would all benefit from this learning task on observation. Observation is a skill used in all learning, and is the foundation of inquiry.

In inquiry-based learning, explorations provide opportunities for students to have conversation and ask questions prior to starting a new topic, to that they can activate their prior knowledge about the topic, and begin to formulate questions to help them guide further investigations. The teacher can use this opportunity to find out what students already know, as well as any misconceptions they have about the topic. To foster these experiences, teachers carefully choose the materials they provide, so that they draw the students to the learning goal. They resist the “temptation to tell,” instead providing an environment that leads students toward the desired logical conclusion (the “big idea”) instead.

This guided exploration is included as an introductory learning task for a unit on seed dispersal mechanisms. Before students can understand the various methods that plants use for dispersing their seeds, they must begin to see that the structures of plants are connected with their functions. The first step of this process is identifying and describing plants and plant structures from their locale. Although this task uses wildflower seeds and flowers as materials, you can adjust the materials freely to use whatever natural or interesting materials you have available when you do the task.

This learning task also explicitly teaches students how to use a Bubble Map as a way of recording their observations, in preparation for its use independently. The Bubble Map is a thinking map designed to focus specifically on the cognitive process of describing an object using adjectives.

Teach students to notice and wonder about things all around them [Photo credit: (c) Kim M. Bennett 2012]


 

Learning Focus:

Essential Questions —

  • What is inquiry?
  • How do scientists use observations in scientific work?
  • How do wildflowers disperse their seeds?

Enduring Understandings —

  • Scientists use observations to better understand the world around them.
  • Observing plants and seeds gives us clues about how they are dispersed in nature.

 

Focus for This Learning Task:

  • Focus Strategy: Describing Using a Bubble Map
  • Targeted Skill: Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information
  • Key Concepts: Attributes
  • Core Ideas: Structure and Function

 

The Learning Task:

Guiding Questions for Students:

  • What do you notice?
  • What do you wonder?

Materials Used:

  • Stems of burdock, including fruits (one for each pair of students) [Another interesting, textural fruit can be substituted for burdocks: horse chestnuts, maple samaras, black locust pods, milkweed pods, etc.]
  • Observation pages (one per student) and one copy of directions (for teacher)
  • Writing tools
  • Hand lenses
  • Tweezers
  • Styrofoam trays or plates
  • Chart paper and markers OR SmartBoard (for teacher)

 

Safariology™ My Bug Box Exploration Kit with 4 Compartments. Includes one set of tweezers, one magnifier, and an idea booklet. $10.98, HearthSong.

Procedure (Day 1):

1. Preparation:

    • Organize students in partners – pair students to foster conversation.
    • Pass out one burdock stem, one pair of tweezers, one Styrofoam tray, two hand lenses, and two Observation Pages for each partnership. Students will also need pencils. Have students label their trays with their initials, for future days.
    • On chart paper or the SmartBoard, recreate the chart from the Observation Page. In the center, write the words, “I notice…” At the bottom of the page, write “I wonder…”

2. Define observation: “When you notice details about something, you are making observations. Scientists use observations to understand the world around them, and to help them ask good questions.”

3. Model observation.

    • “Hmmm… I’m looking at my stem. I know it’s a burdock – you might not know that. I notice that it’s mostly brown.” [On the chart, make a bubble connected to the center bubble. Label the new bubble “mostly brown.”]
    • “Let’s see. I notice that the stem has some streaks of green in it, too. I’ll connect that to the color bubble I already have.” [Draw a new bubble, and label the bubble “streaked with green.”]. “I wonder if the whole thing started out green, then turned brown?” [At the bottom of the Observation Page, write the question, “Did the whole branch start out green, then turn brown?” under, “I wonder…]
    • “Ok. There are these round balls on the stems. I think they’re seeds or seed pods or something. I notice that they’re really prickly – they stick to my fingers!” [Add new bubbles, “very prickly,” “round things.” Add the question, “I wonder what these round things are?” to “I wonder…”]
    • Give students a minute or two to copy what you have written so far onto their own Observation Pages.

[Teacher’s Note: A Bubble Map is a brainstorming tool, so don’t worry about categorizing the responses right now – that can be done in another step. This step is focusing on describing with adjectives. If student’s response is not in the form of an adjective, paraphrase it to make it an adjective (with the student’s permission).]

4. Shared PracticeObservation.

  • Invite students to share observations that they can make about their own specimens, adding them to the class display as above.
  • Add additional observations to the class Observation Page.
  • Collect trays and tools for the next session.

Procedure (Day 2):         

1. Preparation:

    • Have students find their partners.
    • Pass out materials, or have a helper pass them out.
    • Post class Observation Page.

2. Review:

  • “What is observation? Why is it important in science?”
  • “What observations did we make about our burdock specimens yesterday?” – (Review class chart – have student volunteers read or report – add new observations as necessary).
  • Introduce the word attributes. Define attributes as the kinds of things we noticed about the burdock specimens (“We said the burdocks were mostly brown, and streaked with green. Those are all words that describe the attribute, color.”).

 3.      Guided PracticeObservation

  • Next, give students several minutes to explore their specimens using the hand lens [Teacher’s Note: Encourage students to closely examine the barbs on the fruits with the hand lenses, but don’t tell them what they’re for.]
  • [Support: Be prepared to guide students to put their responses in adjective form. It is also very important to encourage students to include questions at the bottom. Paraphrase their statements to form questions, if needed (E.g. “Look at those tiny things inside! Maybe they’re seeds” becomes “I wonder if those tiny things inside are seeds?”]
  • As students are ready, invite them to next use the tweezers to dissect one of the seed pods, continuing to add to their observation sheets.

4. Independent Practice – Observation

  • Provide interesting specimens in the Nature Corner Center for independent observations by the students. Provide any tools that would help the students make observations (hand lenses, tweezers, scissors, plastic knives, etc.), as appropriate. Include sufficient copies of the Observation Page for all.
  • Post the class Observation Page in the Center, for reference.
  • Post the vocabulary words, “observation,” “observe,” “attribute,” “notice…” and “wonder…” in the Center.
  • See “The Nature Corner” for more details on setting up a nature study center in your classroom.

 See the photo gallery, below, for ideas for seeds and other plant materials to put in the Nature Center, in order to help students develop their observation skills.

 

Wrap-up (Day 3 and ongoing):

  • Students place Observation Page in their science journals.
  • Teacher continues to use “I notice… I wonder…” in multiple contexts.
  • Students continue to use “I notice… I wonder…” in multiple contexts.

How could you use “I notice… I wonder…” when you’re reading? How could you use your powers of observation when you go into the cafeteria at lunchtime? When you return from recess today, be ready to share 3 things you noticed, and one thing you wondered, about the weather today.

Key Vocabulary:

  • Adjective
  • Describe
  • Observe, observation
  • Attribute
  • Notice
  • Wonder

Follow-up:

  • Which of your five senses did you use the most when making your observations? Which did you use the least? Why?
  • Read over your questions, under “I Wonder…” Which can you answer by more observation? Which of your questions must be answered by doing some kind of research or experiment first? Why?
  • Why do you think it is important to ask questions in science?
  • Why do scientists make observations about things?

 

Let’s Go Outside! Outdoor Activities to Get You and Your Kids Closer to Nature. Paperback, $14 (HearthSong)

Grade-Level Considerations:

Pre-K/K:

Students who are very young are learning that objects have properties, some which can be observed directly, using their senses, others which can be determined using simple tools and tests. The focus for them is on honing their observational skills, and sharing their observations orally.

When sharing this learning task with little ones, ask them questions, like the ones below.

  • What did you notice? Which of your senses did you use to notice that?
  • What word could you use to describe _____? Can you think of another word that means the same thing?
  • How did using scientific tools help you make different observations?
  • Why do scientists observe things?
  • If you were a world-famous scientist, what would you want to observe next? Why?
  • What other things did you observe today? Explain.

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Focus on conversation with preschool and kindergartners [Image credit: kjarrett 2012 via Creative Commons]

Grades 1/2:

As students enter the primary grades, they are learning that living things have structures that help them to survive. They begin to notice and can explain the connection between the structures of living things and their specific function (e.g., the stinger on a bee helps it protect itself and the hive). They are becoming more adept at the use of tools to investigate their world, and are learning to select the appropriate tools for a given situation. They can compare the way a seed is formed with the way that it is dispersed and begin to see the function behind the form.

Providing a variety of science tools leads primary grade students to explore their world in different ways, and to gather different kinds of information. In addition, providing unfamiliar objects to explore helps students at this age apply the skills that they have practiced in new contexts. As students work, ask them questions such as these:

  • Which tool would be better for ______? Why might this be?
  • How could you answer your “I Wonder” question? What tools would you need?
  • If you were making observations about underwater plants, what tools would you need? Would you need to make your observations a different way? Work with a partner to design this new exploration.
  • Use pictures and words to describe your observations.

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Primary grade students are learning that living things are the way they are for a purpose [Photo credit: (c) Kim M. Bennett 2012]

Grades 3/4:

Children who are moving through the elementary grades are exploring the relationships between and interdependence of living and non-living things in the environment. They are beginning to understand that some structures of living things make them better adapted for their living conditions — that there is an underlying purpose behind the way that plants and animals are designed, the environment they live in, and how they go about finding food, shelter and ways to reproduce. They are also moving beyond concrete to representational, and are using symbols and visuals to show ideas.

Children in the elementary grades can begin to discuss how certain seed dispersal mechanisms benefit plants that live in different ecosystems (e.g., why a tumbleweed disconnects from its roots when the seeds are ripe, on a windy prairie). They are also more adept at creating their own graphic organizers (“thinking maps”) to organize information in meaningful ways.

If this exploration is conducted with elementary grade students, ask them questions like the ones, below:

  • Look at the structure of _______. How do you think this plant disperses its seeds? Draw a picture showing how this might occur.
  • In what kind of environment would this seed dispersal mechanism be important? Explain.
  • Look at the words you used to describe _______. Organize your descriptions into categories. Name each attribute.
  • Create a flow map showing how _______ reproduces itself, starting with the dried fruit. Label each step in the process.
  • Find another wildflower seed head in the Nature Center that you think disperse its seeds a different way. Explain its seed dispersal mechanism. Use pictures and words to explain your thinking.

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Elementary students begin to infer and explain the reasons why living things look and behave the way they do, based on observing patterns in nature [Photo credit: (c) Kim M. Bennett 2011]

Grades 5/6:

Students in the middle grades are honing their skills as scientists, and learning to evaluate the validity of experimental methods and claims. Their experiments should focus on evaluating and selecting among various scientific claims. They can be expected to produce more sophisticated arguments and presentations, based on data and resources.

When conducting this investigation with older elementary students, consider the following adaptations:

  • Find two other plants that have the same seed dispersal mechanism as _______. Compare the seeds of these three plants. With a partner, make a chart showing what is sometimes true, always true, and never true about plants with this seed dispersal mechanism.
  • How would you find out if you were correct when deciding what seed dispersal mechanism _______ uses? Describe the investigation.
  • Find an article online that describes the various ways that plants disperse their seeds.

Common Core State Standards Connections:

In the middle grades, students practice making scientific claims and evaluating others claims, using observations and other data sources [Photo credit: (c) Kim M. Bennett 2011]

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Indirect Measurement: Color and Bird Feeding

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Learning Focus:

Essential Questions —

  • What is the relationship between color and bird feeding behavior?
  • How do you quantify something that you can’t measure yourself?

Enduring Understandings —

  • Treatment effects can be measured using both direct and indirect means.

Focus for This Task:

  • Focus Strategy: Indirect Measurement
  • Targeted Skill: Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
  • Key Concepts: Cause and Effect
  • Core Ideas: Biological Evolution

The Learning Task:

Designing the Investigation:

  • Problem Statement: Does the color of a bird feeder affect bird feeding behavior?
  • Null Hypothesis: The color of the bird feeder has no effect on bird feeding behavior.
  • Alternative Hypothesis: The color of the bird feeder does affect bird feeding behavior.

 Do you think that the birds will eat from one color feeder more than the other? Why or why not? Which color, if either, do you think will attract birds the most? How will you know?

Materials Used:

  • two identical pie pans
  • construction paper (one sheet of green, one sheet of red) [You can use more than two colors with older students; make sure one of them is red.]
  • scissors
  • mixed bird seed (or seed of your choice)
  • 1-cup measuring cup

Procedure:

  1. Trace the bottom of the pie pan onto each sheet of construction paper; cut out the two construction paper circles.
  2. Place one circle inside the bottom of each pie pan.
  3. Measure one cup of mixed bird seed into each pie pan, making sure to push the seeds to one side to expose the color at the bottom of the pie pan.
  4. Place the pie pans on the ground in a place where birds frequently come to visit and feed.
  5. After 2 days, bring the pie pans inside. Measure the seed in each pan using a measuring cup.

 See the photo gallery, below, for questions to ask while conducting this investigation.

Results:

  • Record your results using a data table.

How would you set up your data table? What would be the column headers? What would be the row labels? What data would you put in the body of the table? How might you order the data? Why?

Key Vocabulary:

  • dependent, independent variable
  • direct, indirect measurement
  • scientific method
  • experiment
  • data
  • measurement
  • observation

Follow-up:

  • Did you use direct measurement or indirect measurement to determine the effects of color on bird feeding behavior? Explain.
  • What would be other direct ways of measuring your treatment effect? What would be other indirect methods?
  • What other factors might have influenced the results of your experiment? How could you change the experiment to eliminate these factors?
  • Could you change your procedure to more accurately measure your treament affect? How?

Grade-Level Considerations:

Pre-K/K:

Students who are very young are learning that objects have properties, some which can be observed directly, using their senses, others which can be determined using simple tools and tests. The focus for them is on honing their observational skills, and exploring measurement.

When conducting this experiment with little ones, ask them questions, like the ones below.

  • Which color do you think will attract more birds? Why?
  • What did you notice about the birds feeding?
  • Which feeder has more seed? How can we figure it out?
  • Why do we measure things?
  • If you were a bird, which feeder would you go to? Why?
  • What do you think would happen if we changed the color of the feeders? Why?

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Grades 1/2:

As students enter the primary grades, they are learning that all living things have basic needs, in order to survive. They  begin to notice and can explain the connection between the behaviors of living things and their need for food and water. They are becoming more adept at the use of tools to investigate their world, and are learning to select the appropriate measurement tool for a given situation.

Simple experiments give primary grade students an opportunity to design and carry out fair tests to to investigate their world, and to practice recording their observations in various ways. As they work , ask students questions like the ones below:

  • Which color attracted birds more? Why might this be?
  • How could you figure out which feeder the birds preferred? What measurement tool would you need? Is there another way you could measure this?
  • If you wanted to find out if different colors attracted different birds, how would you change this experiment? Work with a partner to design this new experiment.
  • Use pictures, words and numbers to show the results of your experiment.

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Grades 3/4:

Children who are moving through the elementary grades are exploring the relationships between and interdependence of living and non-living things in the environment. They are beginning to understand that some behaviors of living things make them better adapted for their living conditions — that there is an underlying purpose behind the way that plants and animals respond to their environment. They are also moving beyond concrete to representational, and are using symbols and visuals to show ideas.

If this investigation is conducted with elementary grade students, ask them questions like the ones, below:

  • If this were a different environment (city, desert, beach), would you expect different results? Why or why not?
  • What other factors (environment, human activities, etc.) might have influenced the results of this experiment? Explain.
  • Draw a diagram showing the way you set up your experiment. Include a caption, and clearly label important parts of the feeding station.
  • Re-design this experiment, including a direct method of measuring the effects of color on bird feeding behaviors, in place of the method in this activity.

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Grades 5/6:

Students in the middle grades are honing their skills as scientists, and learning to evaluate the validity of experimental methods and claims. Their experiments should focus on evaluating and selecting from among various experimental methods. They can be expected to produce more sophisticated arguments and presentations, based on data and resources.

When conducting this experiment with older elementary students, consider the following adaptations:

  • Measure the effects of color on bird feeding behaviors using the following measurement methods: weight of seeds before and after feeding period; number of feeding visits per feeder, during feeding period; average length of feeding visit per bird, during feeding time.
  • Which measurement method most accurately measured the effect of color on bird feeding behavior? Support your claim using results from your experiment.
  • Find an article online that discusses color and bird feeding. Summarize your findings in your report.

Common Core State Standards Connections:

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