Tag Archives: similarities and differences

Working with Analogies: The Analogies Center

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Researchers have determined that strategies that have students looking for similarities and differences between and among items result in some of the greatest performance gains (Classroom Instruction That Works, Dean, et al, 2013). Among the ways that students can look at similarities and differences is through creating and explaining analogies.  This blog post will explain what analogies are, how they reveal a deep understanding in students, and some ways to help incorporate working with analogies into independent practice opportunities throughout your curriculum.

What is an Analogy?

An analogy is a comparison between two things that are similar in some way, often used to help explain something or make it easier to understand. In an analogy, the student must determine the way in which two things are related, and extend the comparison to two additional items similarly related. Those of us who have taken the SAT are familiar with this device:

 

Water:snow::lava:_____

This device is customarily read, “Water is to snow as lava is to ____.” This means that water and snow are related to one another, in the same way that lava and _____ are related. In order to accurately complete the analogy, the student must first determine the specific relationship between water and snow, and then apply that to lava.

The Bridge Map: A Thinking Map ®

We know that all bodies of information, and all thought processes, have their own “shape.” That is to say, there is a pictorial way to represent ideas, processes and functions that is not constrained by words, and is easier for learners of all ages to understand. Not only are these graphical representations easier to comprehend, but they also instruct the student regarding the overall structure of the information relayed. David Hyerle developed Thinking Maps ® as a way to simplify the graphical way that learners represent different cognitive processes. In his system, there are only eight “maps” needed to explain the different thought processes that humans use to process information.

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Representing an analogy using a bridge map.

When creating and extending analogies, students could use the traditional device with which we adult test-takers are familiar, but the device requires that the learner is a reader, and, therefore, excludes its use by young children, second language learners, or struggling readers. A non-linguistic way to accomplish the same thing is the bridge map.

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An extended version of the same bridge map.

The bridge map, extended, can be viewed at right.


Once students see two pairs of items, they can determine the relationship between items in each pair, which is represented by the line between the items:

 

“Water is the liquid form of snow, as lava is the liquid form of rock…”

Using Bridge Maps in a Learning Center

There are four main ways that students can work with bridge maps in an independent learning center. Using a combination of all the ways ensures that students understand the entire concept of analogies.

  1. What’s My Rule?
  2. Complete the Analogy
  3. Extend the Analogy
  4. Create an Analogy

For illustration purposes, let’s use something easy to understand, geometric figures, to explain these four different learning tasks.

 

The Basic Learning Center Design

I always like to use a chunk of bulletin board space for learning centers, so that students can manipulate items as they work collaboratively. Alternatively, a table top can be used (especially if you are working with realia as the items in the analogous pairs).

Other Materials:

  • A large copy of a bridge map (for bulletin board or table top) [See Note]
  • Photographs, drawings or real objects to use in analogous pairs
  • Index cards or sentence strips with words to use in analogous pairs
  • Blank cards or sentence strips to complete or extend the analogy
  • Markers
  • Student copies of individual bridge map worksheets
  • A finished work basket

NOTE: When creating a frame to be used over and over again in a center, consider reproducing it on heavier paper or cardstock, then laminating it. Use hook and loop dots to attach items to the frame, and store materials in zipper-style plastic bags.

See the diagram, below, for an example of how the basic center layout might look.

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Version 1: “What’s My Rule?”

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Students can examine a teacher-prepared bridge map to determine the “rule.”

Use the basic format (shown above). Use photos, realia, or words to complete one bridge map section. Provide sentence strips for students to write the “rule,” or relationship between pairs of items. The relationship between one pair MUST be the same relationship between all pairs in a given map!

 

To check their work, students place their “rule” strip on the horizontal line between pairs. The sentence must be true. If it is, then they check the remaining pairs. If the sentences are all true, then they can conclude that the relationship is one possible “rule” for this set of items.

 

Version 2: “Complete the Analogy”

Bridge map www.simplesciencestrategies.com

Teachers can pre-fill some parts of the bridge map, and students can complete the analogy.

Use the basic format, as before. Use photos, realia, or words to partially fill in one bridge map section. Provide index cards and markers, or images, or sources of images, for students to complete the analogy. If providing images and words, provide a variety, so that some complete the analogy and some don’t, and so that students may visit the center more than once. Then provide blank bridge maps for students to record their work, and state their rule.

 

Hints:

  • Provide resources for students to research the topic
  • Keep sets of related items in labeled baggies for future use

Version 3: “Extend the Analogy”

This example of an analogy center uses real objects instead of word cards. In the example, below, students must correctly determine the “rule” (relationship) between the top and bottom of the bridge map, then use that rule to extend the analogy. NOTE: For this particular example, there is a very specific rule (“If an isosceles triangle is spun around its vertical line of symmetry, you get a cone.”). Watch out for students who only look shallowly at the relationship (e.g., they put a 3D “diamond” under the parallelogram), because they are missing the specific relationship between the top and bottom items (i.e., the 2D form is spun around a line of symmetry, so the resulting 3D form cannot possibly have all those “edges.”).

Provide attribute blocks and 3D geometric figures or real objects of those shapes, to help students to visualize. Then provide materials for them to affix the 3D object to the map. As before, give them the organizer sheet to record their thinking.

Bridge map www.simplesciencestrategies.com

Students can use real objects to complete and extend analogies.

 

Version 4: “Create an Analogy”

In this example, students use real objects from the classroom to create nets, paper models of 3-dimensional objects which, when cut out and folded, form the 3D shapes of the original items. You will also notice that the board space is divided so each group has a portion as a workspace.

Collect a number of classroom items and display them at the center. Provide paper, writing tools and scissors, and allow students to work individually or in pairs to create 2D representations of the objects, or nets. Students create the analogy by mounting the net, over the real object, and stating the rule:  “_____ is the net form of _____.”

Copies of the nets can be provided by teams below each analogous pair, so that their classmates can check the accuracy of their work (i.e., classmates can construct the 3D figures from the nets to determine if they do, in fact, create the shape of the original object).

 

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Students can be given a rule and create the analogy.

 

Other Ideas Using Analogies:

These are just a few ways that analogies can be used in a learning center. Here are a few more… see if you can think of others (the words in bold describe the relationship [“rule”] between the items in italics):

  • Hardware and human joints: “An elbow works like a hinge.”
  • Tiles and tessellations: “This design is a tessellation of this tile.”
  • Form and function: “A bird’s tail steers like a plane’s wing flaps.”
  • Organelles and parts of a factory: “The mitochondria work as the cell’s power plants.”
  • Seed dispersal and package transport: “Dandelion seeds move like air drops from a plane.”

 

Next Steps… and Sharing!

Please do try out analogies in your classroom. And share your ideas via our Simple Science Strategies Blog Carnival. Happy analogies!

 

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Comparing Nests: The “Same and Different” Center

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Similarities and Differences

Research-based Strategies for Teaching and Learning

Over the past several years, researchers have studied thousands of teaching and learning strategies, to determine which ones yielded the best increases in student performance (Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement presents one meta-analysis of these strategies).

The type of learning task that led to the greatest learning in students involved comparing two things to determine how they were alike and how they were different from one another. This shouldn’t surprise us, when we consider that all of us learn new things by comparing the new with the known, in order to better “file” the information in our brains.

This article explains a simple center that you can create to compare any two objects (related to your theme or content), in an interactive bulletin board display. We will use a squirrel’s nest and the nest of a Northern oriole, to accompany our November studies of autumn nature finds.

Materials

  • Index cards (three colors)
  • Markers
  • Colored yarn
  • A stapler
  • A large photograph of a squirrel’s nest
  • An oriole nest (or large photo)
  • Bulletin board space
  • Sentence strip (2 foot-long pieces)
  • Scissors
  • Field guides or other non-fiction resources on nests

Procedure:

[NOTE: This is designed to be an independent learning center. The assumption is made that students have already been introduced to, and know how to work with, both the bubble map and double bubble map, described in early posts.]

Provide materials on a counter below a bulletin board (cover the bulletin board with whatever covering you’d like — I used to buy fabric remnants on theme, and kept them folded in the box with the other unit materials, to use year after year).

Students use the photos or actual nests, and the non-fiction resources, to generate characteristics or descriptions of the two nests. In the diagram below, blue index cards are used for the characteristics of the squirrel’s nest, yellow cards for the oriole’s nest, and white cards for descriptors that can be used for both nests. Cards are stapled to the bulletin board, and attached to the appropriate header and/or photo with string (I opted for brightly colored yarn).

Leave the bulletin board up for interactive work for the duration of the unit.

science centers comparing nests

A simple, interactive bulletin board becomes a powerful tool for comparing two nests during independent learning time. Image credit: (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2012.

Assessment

Make the assessment part of the student work, inviting students to question one another and revise one another’s work. For example, I have used a small, simple “o” on interactive bulletin board work, to indicate an “opportunity” for other students to revise a piece of information. When the information is updated successfully, I simply cover the “o” with a small, round sticker.

Periodically use the collaborative display in response work, having students summarize the learning, to date. Refer to the work during whole class instruction, as well.

Classroom routines

Once students have used this center, you can use the routine to compare all sorts of things: two books on a theme or topic; two closely related vocabulary words (e.g., blissful, ecstatic); two geometric figures (e.g., rectangle, trapezoid); two biological processes (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration).

In my elementary classroom, interactive bulletin boards were a staple among my learning centers — they fostered conversation and collaboration, were hands-on, and created a healthy “buzz” of learning. The differentiation is built into the task, allowing multiple “entry points” for the content. And the routine of revisiting the work reinforces to students that the classroom displays are meant to be resources for the students to use daily.

Additional lesson ideas

Burgess Animal Book for Children

For more instructional activities to use in conjunction with this learning center, please see “New e-Book: Nests, Nests, Nests!”,  a 25-page e-Book perfect for the elementary classroom or homeschool science class ($1.95 from Simple Science Strategies).

This set includes both primary and regular-ruled science journaling pages focusing on animal nests, as well as a variety of framed pages for thematic writing, note-taking or nature study. Organizers for studying and comparing nests of different animal orders, coloring and copywork pages, and game cards for sorting and classification tasks make this set versatile, perfect for direct instruction or independent learning tasks. Also included with this e-Book is a summary of ten lesson ideas with linked resources, enough for a great integrated unit on animal nests.

Animal taxonomy studies

One of our favorite animal study books…

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The November Simple Science Strategies Newsletter is Here!

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Well, this is not the United States Postal Service…

Weather events, loss of power, school cancellations and other unforeseen events DO affect the schedule here at Simple Science. And we apologize for it!

Winter Storm Ali 2012

We’re done making our snowman… here’s the next newsletter!

Without further ado (or TOO much delay) here is the November edition of the Simple Science Strategies Newsletter.

In it, we will use November nature events as a springboard for conversations about some big science ideas:

Topic — preparing for winter

  • camouflage
  • hibernation
  • evergreen and deciduous trees
  • fall and winter nature finds

Science processes, concepts and disciplines

  • Building an Argument Using Evidence
  • Stability and Change
  • Life Sciences: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Strategies and tools

  • Comparing and Contrasting
  • Using Argument (Discussion Frames) to compare sides of an argument
  • Creating Double Bubble Maps to compare two things
Simple Science Strategies November Newsletter

Click image or link to download the November edition of the Simple Science Strategies Newsletter (2012)

Don’t Forget!

Share…

Please post your work on our Blog Carnival. See the link for important details about the November blog carnival.

Give us feedback…

Take a few moments to complete a very brief survey about your experiences on this blog.

win! (who doesn’t like free?)

Enter on our sister site, A Child’s Garden, for a chance to win an All-Season Indoor Composter, by UncommonGoods. Entries will be accepted through the end of November. No purchase necessary. Click here to enter.

 

The All-Seasons Indoor Composter, $48 at UncommonGoods.
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